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What Is Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9)?

Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) (Phenotropil) is a Nootropic of the Racetam family, and as its name suggests it is a phenyl- derivative of Piracetam. Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) is reported to be more neuroprotective than piracetam is, but also possesses psychostimulatory properties and is reported to enhance physical performance.
There is a fair bit of research to suggest that Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) is effective, like other racetam drugs, in attenuating the rate of and symptoms of cognitive decline. Many of these studies use Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) for over one month's time, and the benefits seen may only apply to organic causes of cognitive decline (dementia and stroke) rather than traumatic brain injury.
There is only one rat study noting cognitive enhacement in otherwise healthy young rats, and this study only noted benefit with the R-isomer (the racemic mixture, which is commonly sold, failed to outperform control). While cognitive enhancing propertes of Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) in youth cannot be ruled out, they are possibly distinct from the psychostimulatory properties (which occur with said racemic mixture and the R-isomer).
A great way to think of Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) is that it is a modified version of Piracetam, the original Nootropic.
The only major difference, structurally speaking, is the addition of a Phenyl group molecule attached.
This is amazingly responsible for creating a supplement which is up to 60 times more powerful than the original Piracetam.
This also affords Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) some unique central nervous system stimulant and Nootropic-like effects.
The additional Phenyl group also allows the supplement to pass through the blood-brain barrier easier and more efficiently which means you can take a much smaller dosage to get the same benefits as other nootropics.
As a result, Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) becomes active faster and is able to remain in the system longer. In fact, research indicates that Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) is able to remain active in the brain and body with a half-life of up to 5 hours.
It also leads to stimulant effects which are ‘clean’ and better resemble what you might experience when taking something like Adderall. However, Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) side effects are much safer than those you might encounter when taking an amphetamine-based smart drug like Adderall.

How to Take Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9)?
Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) is taken at a dosage of 100-200mg acutely, and this dose is taken 2-3 times per day (totalling a daily range of 200-600mg). The lower range seems effective, but the optimal dosage is not yet known.
The R-isomer appears to be more active on the common usages of Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) (stimulation and cognition) than does the S-isomer, and while the racemic mixture (commonly sold version) is effective for cognitive decline it is not certain if it works for nootropic purposes in youth.

Benefits Of Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9):
Since Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) powder so closely resembles Piracetam, it does have many of the same effects. This is particularly true in relation to many of the cognitive effects and benefits.
Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) benefits include an increase in memory, possibly even speeding up recall. Users will also experience an increase in their learning capacity, focus, concentration, and also mental energy. This could be a great supplement to help remove ‘brain fog.’
The supplement has also been studied in relation to its effect on mood and movement. There is a lot of evidence to suggest that Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) actually modulates a number of different neurotransmitters and receptors sites. These include Acetylcholine, GABA, NDMA, and even Dopamine.
The Dopamine is thought to be critical in relation to both mood and movement. This can explain why using Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) is able to reduce motion sickness. It has also been shown to reduce anxiety and fear response in animal tests, along with increasing locomotor activity.
There are a number of additional potential benefits as well such as increasing attention-switching and problem solving skills in patients suffering from asthenia. Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) is also able to reduce the effects of sleep deprivation for many users. Another interesting benefit of Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) is that it helps to increase tolerance to cold.

Suggested Use Of Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9):
One of the best uses of this supplement is for students and productivity-obsessed businessmen and women.
This could be used for helping someone to remain awake and alert while studying (really helpful for those late night or even all-night cram sessions).
Use it before a test to boost your focus and mental energy, or just as a general cognitive enhancer to improve your memory, recall speed, and learning capacity. Many students also see an increase in their motivation and an improved mood when taking even small Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) dosages.
Finally, you might even notice that the effects of stress and anxiety (which you might ordinarily have when an exam gets closer and closer) are significantly reduced.
Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) can also be very effective for athletes. Just as a general stress reducer, the supplement is capable of removing a number of negative effects throughout the body and increase stamina, recovery, and endurance ability.
This is also likely why the supplement is able to increase tolerance for cold weather. Some individuals in the bodybuilding work have begun taking Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) doses in their pre-workout supplement stacks.
Anyone who is interested in generating intense amounts of extra energy should consider Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9). This added energy is clean and focused, similar to that of an amphetamine. This is due largely to the addition of the Phenyl group.
There is no caffeine-like related nervousness or jitters and not even much of a crash or letdown as the effectiveness wears off. This makes Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) much less dangerous and safer to use in the long run.

Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) Dosage:
When taking this supplement it is strongly advised to start with as low of an effective dose as possible. Most people seem to have initial results starting as low as 100 mg of Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) per day. Please also understand that this supplement does result in tolerance, so it should not be taken every day or on a long-term basis.
The best way to dose Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) would be on a cycle, maybe a few days a week, then a week or two layoff. Stack it with something like Alpha GPC, Sulbutiamine, or another Nootropic/Racetam.
Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) is equally as effective if it is only used on an as-needed basis, to help study for an important test or when you want a very focused and intense workout.

Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) Sources

Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) (structual name (RS)-2-(2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide and the brandname of either Phenotropil or Carphedon) is a Piracetam derivative that has an additional phenyl group at position 4 of the 2-oxopyrrolidine ring. It is reported (from the manufacturer) to be rapidly and well absorbed due to the enhanced lipophilicity and exerts more anti-amensiac, neuroprotective, and stimulatory effects than does piracetam|published=2007 Mar-Apr|authors=Tiurenkov IN, Bagmetov MN, Epishina VV|journal=Eksp Klin Farmakol] and has been reported to enhance physical performance and cold resistance leading to it being included in the banned substances list of the world anti-doping agency (WADA, listed under 4-Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) or carphedon as a non-specified stimulant).

Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) Structure

Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) is the piracetam structure with an additional phenyl group attached to the pyrrolidone nucleus, albeit at a different steric location than the substituted phenyl groups seen on Aniracetam or Nefiracetam. Due to the chiral center at the fourth position of the pyrrolidinone ring, it can exist in an S or R isomer; the clinically used form is the racemic mixture.

Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) Serum

Injections of 100mg/kg Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) to rodents exhibits a half-life of 2.5-3 hours.
30 minutes following a 25mg/kg injection, Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) can be detected in the brain at 67-73μg/g and a later test using 100mg/kg noted that approximately 1% of injected Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) reached the brain.

Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) Cognition

Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) appears to have a series of trials conducted on it (Cited vicariously through this review where four of seven can be located online) showing improvement in cognition in persons with cognitive decline from organic causes, with one study noting a minor improvement in cognition in those with epilepsy (youth) and the lone failure coming from a study on traumatic brain injury in youth. These studies used a dosage range between 200mg (100mg twice daily) up to 600mg (200mg thrice daily), and all lasted for one months time.
Symptoms associated with cognitive decline such as anxiety and depression have also been noted to be reduced in open-label trials although the study assessing asthenia (weakness; one of the major reasons Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) is prescribed) failed to find a significant effect over control (mild cranial trauma).
One trial not included in the aforementioned review noted improvement in function (physical and cognitive) in person's who suffered from strokes when Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) was taken at 400mg daily for one years time.

Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) Depression

Depressive symptoms in a forced-swim test in rats have been noted to be greatly reduced with 50-100mg/kg Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9), with the R-isomer being more active than the S-isomer. Elsewhere, the depressive symptoms in persons with cognitive decline have been attenuated in an open-label trial with 200mg Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) daily (100mg twice daily).

Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) Psychostimulation

In rats injected with Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9), 10-50mg/kg appears to increase locomotor activity (distance and velocity) mostly due to the R-isomer and without any apparent dose-dependence. The 50mg/kg dose lasted for approximately four hours when the R-isomer was used, and the racemic mixture lasted for two hours.
One study has reported sleep disturbances as a side-effect of Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) (Sazonov et al. 2006; not located online but cited via this review), in accordance with the reported psychostimulatory properties. Other trials do not note such a side-effect, and the reason it was detected in this study only is unknown.

Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) Interventions

25mg/kg of Phenylpiracetam(cas 77472-70-9) injections daily for five days to rats subsequently given lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections to aggravate the immune system noted that LPS-induced alterations in DTHR and phagocytosis were normalized with no apparent effect on antibody production. Behavioural alterations from LPS injections (anxiety and sluggishness) were fully abolished.